Core Ocean Statistics

Table of Contents

 

Core Ocean Statistics

Goal

Develop a set of core ocean statistics which encompasses a range of biophysical, economic, social, and governance topics. These statistics will collectively define ecosystem condition for the purpose of ocean account building.

Background

  • There is a need for a comprehensive list of statistics collectable by all countries that form the basis of ocean accounts and inform on overall ecosystem condition and value.

  • These topics must be equally weighted in order to connect environmental assets, flows to the environment, flows to the economy, and governance factors related to the ecosystem in question and provide decision-making capabilities to the ocean account end-user.

Challenges

  • What are the key, minimum set of core ocean statistics that should be evaluated which captures ecosystem condition, services, and management (governance)?  

  • How do we ensure these core ocean statistics maintain a strong power of prediction when considering an account will include several different environment types within the domain (country, municipality, etc.) of interest?

  • Can we link these measures back to the SEEA framework and other well-known account structures?

Proposed solutions

  • We outline a set of 30 Core Ocean Statistics that are organized by the factors laid out in Figure 1 of the Technical Guidance Manual and detailed in Appendix 6.10. These include Environmental Assets, Flows to the Environment, Flows to the Economy, and Governance.

  • These statistics are collectable by most countries or accessible on historical online data platforms (Table 1).

  • The statistics (variables, indexes, indicators, and other data types) underpinning each topic will need to be environment-type (ET) specific to ensure the highest power of prediction and be informative at the overall total ecosystem level.

  • We propose the specific core ocean statistics for eight different environment types: Coral Reefs, Mangroves, Kelp Forests, Seagrasses, Estuaries/Salt Marshes, Sediment, and Open Ocean (Tables 2 – 9).

  • Statistics will be further refined over the course of several focused workshops with scientists, economists, and statisticians with expertise specific to each environment type.

Rationale

  • Statistics were chosen from a policy demand point of view and, together, define the most significant aspects of ecosystem condition with respect to economic value and effective management.

  • Statistics were chosen with consideration towards feasible reproducibility, strong background in the literature in being informative to specific environment types and having preestablished connections between environment condition and value.

  • Measuring these statistics collectively provides strength to decision making processes because they reflect the best and most recent available approaches that define not only environment condition, but the flows between the environment and the economy and the parameters needed to determine if governance policies are effectively managing these flows and conditions.

  • The real-time feedback from continuously measuring statistics which collectively inform on condition, flow, and governance provides a strong foundation to enhance policy making decisions regarding a country’s ocean economy.

Core Ocean Statistics Tables

Table 1: Core Ocean Statistics

Environmental Assets

Technical Guidance Reference

Condition

 

Biodiversity

1.3.4

Ecosystem Extent

1.3.4

Ecosystem Fitness

1.3.3

Biogeochemical Cycling

1.3.3

Physiochemical Status

1.3.3

Carbon Stock

1.3.3

Resources

 

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources (Vertebrates)

2.3.4, 2.9.2

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources (Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

2.3.4, 2.9.2

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources (Vertebrates)

2.3.4

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources (Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

2.3.4

Stock of Abiotic Resources

2.3.4

Flows to the Economy (Ocean Services)

 

Regulation

 

Carbon Storage

2.4.4

Coastal Protection

3.4

Erosion Control

3.4

Water Purification

3.5

Nutrient Cycling

3.5

Waste Remediation

3.5

Pollutant Remediation

3.5

Provisioning

 

Maintenance of Fisheries

4.2.3

Cultivated Resources Extracted

4.2.3

Raw Materials Extracted

2.4.2

Cultural

 

Tourism/Recreation

2.4.2, 3.6.2

Education/Research

2.4.2

Religious/Spiritual/Indigenous

2.4.2

Ecosystem Governance

 

Regulation

2.7.1

Enforcement

2.7.1

Restoration/Conservation

2.7.1

Mitigation

2.7.1

Gross Value Added (GVA)

2.8.1

Expenditure

2.8.3

 

Table 2: Coral Reef Ecosystems

Ecosystem Type: Coral Reefs

Category

Statistic

Environmental Assets

Condition

Biodiversity

Coral diversity (benthic surveys)

 

Coral abundance (benthic surveys)

Ecosystem Extent

Coral coverage (satellite data)

 

Total reef area (satellite data)

Ecosystem Fitness

Production: Respiration Ratio

 

Net Accretion Rate

 

Total Alkalinity/DIC Slope

 

Ratio of Coral: Algae Cover

Biogeochemical Cycling

Reef water flow velocity

 

Total Alkalinity

 

Offshore: Inshore pCO2 ratio

 

Aragonite Saturation State

 

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration

 

Daily change in pH (ΔpH total scale)

Physiochemical Quality

Sea Surface Temperature

 

Mean Sea Level

 

Salinity

Carbon Stock

Offshore: Inshore Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Ratio

 

Light availability

 

Coral coverage (satellite data)

 

Sediment: Coral Ratio

Resources

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Subsistence Fishing Catch

(Vertebrates)

Recreational Fishing Catch

 

Commercial Fishing Catch

 

Ornamental Aquarium Fish Export

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross Echinoderm Catch

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Gross Gastropod Catch

 

Ornamental Aquarium Coral Export

 

Gross Bivalve Catch

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Pelagic Fish Reared

(Vertebrates)

Gross Reef Fish Reared

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Coral Cultured

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Gross Algae Grown

 

Gross Shellfish Cultured (incl. pearl trade)

Stock of Abiotic Resources

Calcium Harvested

 

Minerals/Oils Extracted

Flows to the Economy (Ocean Services)

Regulation

Carbon Storage

Coastal geomorphology

 

Sediment deposition rate

 

Light availability

Coastal Protection

Coral Species Composition (Branching vs. Mounding)

 

Reef length/distance

 

Mean Water depth

 

Mean Wave Height

 

Storm Frequency

Erosion Control

Sea Level Rise Rate

 

Terrestrial Sediment Deposition Rate

 

Reef slope to lagoon sediment transition rate

Water Purification

Sediment Organic Carbon: Nitrogen Ratio

 

Benthic coral: algae cover ratio

Nutrient Cycling

Benthic algae cover

 

Sediment cover

 

Ratio of Nitrate: Ammonium

Waste Remediation

Sediment Organic Carbon Content

 

Sediment Organic Nitrogen Content

 

Plastic Pollutant Load

 

Terrestrial Runoff Rate

Pollutant Remediation

Fertilizer Concentrations

 

Land-based Fertilizer Use

 

POC/PON Concentrations

 

Ciguatera Presence

Provisioning

Maintenance of Fisheries

Fish Surveys (Abundance/Diversity)

 

Catch Rate

 

Coral Cover

Cultivated Resources Extracted

Value of Cultivated Vertebrates

 

Value of Cultivated Invertebrates, Algae, Plants

Raw Materials Extracted

Value of Coral Sand Extracted

 

Value of Guano Extracted

Cultural

Tourism/Recreation

Swimmable Area (Lagoon Size)

 

Underwater Tourism

 

Nautical Tourism

 

Surfing/Boardsport Tourism

Education/Research

Net Expense on Research

 

Net Expense on Education

Religious/Spiritual/Indigenous

Cultural Heritage Area

Ecosystem Governance

Regulation

License Fees/Taxes

 

Taxes on Cultivated Resources

 

Taxes on Natural Resources

Enforcement

Permit Income

 

Penalties/Fines

Restoration/Conservation

Area Conserved (no take)

 

Area Conserved (recreational take only)

 

Biomass Restocked (Vertebrates)

 

Biomass Restocked (Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Mitigation

Length of Engineered Coastal Barriers

 

Area Geoengineered

GVA

TBD

Expenditure

TBD

 

Table 3: Mangrove Ecosystems

Ecosystem Type: Mangroves

Category

Statistic

Environmental Assets

Condition

Biodiversity

Enhanced Vegetation Index (MODIS Imaging)

 

Phytoplankton Abundance/Diversity

Ecosystem Extent

Percent Tree Cover (MODIS Imaging)

 

Total Mangrove Area (satellite imaging)

Ecosystem Fitness

Percent Tree Cover

 

Leaf Area Index

 

Chlorophyll Absorption (Hyperspectral Imaging)

 

Soil Carbon

Biogeochemical Cycling

Soil Nitrogen

 

Turbidity

 

Sediment Accumulation: Sea Level Rise

 

Particulate/Dissolved Organic C:N

 

Daily change in Dissolved Oxygen (ΔDO)

 

Soil: Seawater pH ratio

Physiochemical Quality

Mean Sea Level

 

Tidal Regime

 

Salinity

Carbon Stock

Methane Flux

 

Carbon Dioxide Flux

 

Sedimentation Rate (Mud Content)

 

Canopy Area Cover (Landsat Images)

Resources

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross planktivorous fish catch

(Vertebrates)

Gross piscivorous fish catch

 

Bird abundance/diversity

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross Mangrove Removal

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Macrobenthic Community (Sponges, polychaetes)

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Piscivorous Fish Grown

(Vertebrates)

Gross Planktivorous Fish Grown

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Oyster Aquaculture

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Shrimp Aquaculture

Stock of Abiotic Resources

Charcoal Harvested

 

Fuelwood Harvested

Flows to the Economy (Ocean Services)

Regulation

Carbon Storage

Coastal geomorphology

 

Sediment deposition rate

 

Vegetation Type/Density

Coastal Protection

Sediment Elevation Rate

 

Mangrove Mean Age

 

Mean Sea Level

 

Tidal Height

 

Geomorphic Settings

Erosion Control

Distance to Human Settlement

 

Sea level rise

 

Vegetation Type/Density

Water Purification

Mangrove Cover/Distance

 

Sediment Quality

Nutrient Cycling

Nitrification Rate

 

Biological Oxygen Demand

 

Sulphate Reduction Rate

Waste Remediation

Mangrove quality and area

 

Mangrove Root Length (aerial exposure)

 

Adjacent Farming Development

 

Shrimp Pond Development

Pollutant Remediation

Fertilizer Concentrations

 

Dissolved Nutrient Concentrations

 

Trace Metal Concentrations

Provisioning

Maintenance of Fisheries

Fish Surveys

 

Catch Rate

 

Time Spent Fishing

 

Shrimp/Shrimp Fry

Cultivated Resources Extracted

Value of Cultivated Vertebrates

 

Value of Cultivated Invertebrates, Algae, Plants

Raw Materials Extracted

Fuelwood

 

Value of Charcoal

Cultural

Tourism/Recreation

Mangrove Area/Lagoon Size

 

Distance to Human Settlement

 

Tourism Generated Income

 

Recreation Generated Income

Education/Research

Net Expense on Research

 

Net Expense on Education

 

Education Level

Religious/Spiritual/Indigenous

Cultural Heritage Area

Ecosystem Governance

Regulation

License Fees/Taxes

 

Taxes on Cultivated Resources

 

Taxes on Natural Resources

Enforcement

Permit Income

 

Penalties/Fines

Restoration/Conservation

Area Conserved (no take)

 

Distance to Industry/Ports

 

Biomass Restocked

 

Post-restoration care

Mitigation

Length of Engineered Coastal Barriers

 

Area Geoengineered

GVA

TBD

Expenditure

TBD

 

Table 4: Kelp Forest Ecosystems

Ecosystem Type: Kelp Forest

Category

Statistic

Environmental Assets

Condition

Biodiversity

Predator Reef Fish Abundance

 

Benthic Macroinvertebrate Diversity

Ecosystem Extent

Kelp Canopy Biomass (Landsat)

 

Total Kelp Forest Area (Satellite)

Ecosystem Fitness

Availability of Drift Algae

 

Turf Algae Abundance

 

Urchin Grazing Intensity

 

Ratio of Invasive: Natural kelp species

 

Juvenile Kelp Recruitment Rate

Biogeochemical Cycling

Nitrate Concentration

 

Ammonium Concentration

 

Kelp Growth Rate

 

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration

 

C13 Stable Isotopes

 

N15 Stable Isotopes

Physiochemical Quality

Temperature

 

Light availability

 

Salinity

Carbon Stock

Light availability

 

Carbon Storage

 

Kelp Forest Biomass

Resources

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross fish catch - line

(Vertebrates)

Gross fish catch - trap

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Urchin abundance

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Abalone abundance

 

Lobster abundance

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Piscivorous Fish Grown

(Vertebrates)

Gross Planktivorous Fish Grown

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Shellfish grown

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Gross Macroalgae Harvested

Stock of Abiotic Resources

Alginate Extraction

Flows to the Economy (Ocean Services)

Regulation

Carbon Storage

Light Availability

 

Kelp Biomass

 

Kelp Canopy Cover

Coastal Protection

Coastal geomorphology

 

Kelp Canopy Density

 

Wave fetch

 

Abundance of Urchins (and removed)

 

Storm Frequency

Erosion Control

Localized Hydrodynamics

 

Distance to Metropolitan Area

 

Kelp Canopy Cover

Water Purification

Kelp/Macroalgae Abundance

 

Light Availability

Nutrient Cycling

Kelp Growth Rate

 

Standing Stock of Carbon

 

Light availability

Waste Remediation

Ratio of Turf:Macroalgae

 

Kelp Canopy Cover

Pollutant Remediation

Fertilizer Concentrations

 

Fish Farm Runoff

Provisioning

Maintenance of Fisheries

Fish Surveys

 

Catch Rate

 

Catch Per Unit Effort

 

Kelp Cover

Cultivated Resources Extracted

Value of Cultivated Vertebrates

 

Value of Cultivated Macroalgae

Raw Materials Extracted

Alginate Extraction

Cultural

Tourism/Recreation

Kelp Persistence

 

Scuba Diving Frequency

 

Spatial coverage of Marine Protected Area

 

Recreational Fisheries

Education/Research

Net Expense on Research

 

Net Expense on Education

Religious/Spiritual/Indigenous

Cultural Heritage Area

Ecosystem Governance

Regulation

License Fees/Taxes

 

Taxes on Cultivated Resources

 

Taxes on Natural Resources

Enforcement

Permit Income

 

Penalties/Fines

Restoration/Conservation

Transplant costs

 

Invasive Species Abundance

 

Fish Biomass

 

Number/Size of Marine Protected Areas

Mitigation

Area/Abundance of Urchins Removed

 

Area Restored with Kelp

GVA

TBD

Expenditure

TBD

 

Table 5: Seagrass Ecosystems

Ecosystem Type: Seagrasses

Category

Statistic

Environmental Assets

Condition

Biodiversity

Seagrass cover (Satellite imaging)

 

Seagrass diversity/abundance (benthic surveys)

 

Megafauna Abundance Counts (ex: Dugongs)

Ecosystem Extent

Seagrass/Vegetation Cover (satellite)

 

Total Area of Saline High Tide Extent (satellite)

Ecosystem Fitness

Vegetation Type (Species Diversity)

 

Seagrass Density (per m2)

 

Sedimentation Rate

 

Plant Height

Biogeochemical Cycling

Sediment Redox Potential (mV)

 

Dissolved Organic Carbon Release Rate

 

Inundation Depth

 

C:N Sediment ratios

 

Production: Respiration Ratio (per m2)

 

Freshwater Input Rate (ΔSalinity)

Physiochemical Quality

Water Temperature

 

Light Availability

 

Salinity

Carbon Stock

Nitrification Rate

 

Carbon Dioxide Flux

 

Total Water Storage (per m2)

 

Total Organic Carbon (per m2)

Resources

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Artisanal Fishery Catch

(Vertebrates)

Commercial Fishery Catch

 

Recreational Fish Catch

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross Shellfish Harvested

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Gross Shrimp Harvested

 

Gross Seagrass Harvested

 

Gross Crab Harvested

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Planktivorous Fish Grown

(Vertebrates)

 

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Shellfish Grown

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Gross Shrimp Grown

Stock of Abiotic Resources

Agricultural Services

Flows to the Economy (Ocean Services)

Regulation

Carbon Storage

Coastal geomorphology

 

Sediment deposition rate

 

Vegetation Cover

 

Seagrass Blade Length

Coastal Protection

Sedimentation Rate

 

Tidal Range

 

Water Table Height

 

Rooted Plant Cover

 

Storm Frequency

Erosion Control

Fluvial sediment deposition

 

Sea level rise

 

Growth Form: Submerged

Water Purification

Aquatic Plant Leaf Size

 

Sediment/Nutrient Load

 

Root Type

Nutrient Cycling

Nitrification Rate

 

Biological Oxygen Demand

 

Sulphate Reduction Rate

Waste Remediation

Sediment Organic Carbon Content

 

Sediment Organic Nitrogen Content

 

Fish/Shrimp Farm Wastewater Discharge Rate

 

Terrestrial Runoff Rate

Pollutant Remediation

Fertilizer Concentrations

 

Sewage Waste Concentrations

Provisioning

Maintenance of Fisheries

Prey Fish Abundance

 

Hydrodynamic Conditions

 

Primary Productivity Rate (Chl a)

 

Vegetation Cover

Cultivated Resources Extracted

Value of Cultivated Vertebrates

 

Value of Cultivated Invertebrates, Algae, Plants

Raw Materials Extracted

Agricultural Products

Cultural

Tourism/Recreation

Accessible Area for Recreation

 

Water Quality

 

Marine Mammal Tourism

 

Abundance of Visually attractive flora

 

Recreation Generated Income

Education/Research

Net Expense on Research

 

Net Expense on Education

 

Habitat quality and area

Religious/Spiritual/Indigenous

Cultural Heritage Area

Ecosystem Governance

Regulation

License Fees/Taxes

 

Taxes on Cultivated Resources

 

Taxes on Natural Resources

Enforcement

Permit Income

 

Penalties/Fines

Restoration/Conservation

Area Conserved (no take)

 

Area Conserved (recreational take only)

 

Biomass Restocked (Vertebrates)

 

Biomass Restocked (Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Mitigation

Length of Engineered Coastal Barriers

 

Area Geoengineered

GVA

TBD

Expenditure

TBD

 

Table 6: Salt Marsh and Estuary Ecosystems

Ecosystem Type: Salt Marshes and Estuaries

Category

Statistic

Environmental Assets

Condition

Biodiversity

Healthy Predator Populations

 

Prey Fish Abundance

Ecosystem Extent

Seagrass/Vegetation Cover

 

Total Area of Saline High Tide Extent (satellite)

Ecosystem Fitness

Vegetation Type

 

Seagrass Abundance/Cover

 

Plant Height

Biogeochemical Cycling

Sediment Redox Potential

 

Hypersalinity

 

Inundation Depth

 

C:N Sediment ratios

 

Submerged Plant Growth Form

Physiochemical Quality

Water Temperature

 

Light Availability

 

Salinity

Carbon Stock

Nitrification Rate

 

Carbon Dioxide Flux

 

Total Water Storage

 

Total Organic Carbon

Resources

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Artisanal Fishery Catch

(Vertebrates)

Commercial Fishery Catch

 

Recreational Fish Catch

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross Shellfish Harvested

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Gross Shrimp Harvested

 

Gross Crab Harvested

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Planktivorous Fish Grown

(Vertebrates)

 

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Shellfish Grown

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

 

Stock of Abiotic Resources

Agricultural Services

Flows to the Economy (Ocean Services)

Regulation

Carbon Storage

Coastal geomorphology

 

Sediment deposition rate

 

Vegetation Cover

 

Aquatic Plant Leaf Size

Coastal Protection

Coastal geomorphology

 

Tidal Range

 

Water Table Height

 

Rooted Plant Cover

 

Storm Frequency

Erosion Control

Fluvial sediment deposition

 

Sea level rise

 

Growth Form: Submerged

Water Purification

Aquatic Plant Leaf Size

 

Sediment/Nutrient Load

 

Root Type

Nutrient Cycling

Nitrification Rate

 

Biological Oxygen Demand

 

Sulphate Reduction Rate

Waste Remediation

Sediment Organic Carbon Content

 

Sediment Organic Nitrogen Content

 

Terrestrial Runoff Rate

Pollutant Remediation

Fertilizer Concentrations

 

Sewage Waste Concentrations

Provisioning

Maintenance of Fisheries

Prey Fish Abundance

 

Hydrodynamic Conditions

 

Primary Productivity Rate (Chl a)

 

Vegetation Cover

Cultivated Resources Extracted

Value of Cultivated Vertebrates

 

Value of Cultivated Invertebrates, Algae, Plants

Raw Materials Extracted

Agricultural Products

Cultural

Tourism/Recreation

Accessible Area for Recreation

 

Water Quality

 

Marine Mammal Tourism

 

Abundance of Visually attractive flora

 

Recreation Generated Income

Education/Research

Net Expense on Research

 

Net Expense on Education

 

Habitat quality and area

Religious/Spiritual/Indigenous

Cultural Heritage Area

Ecosystem Governance

Regulation

License Fees/Taxes

 

Taxes on Cultivated Resources

 

Taxes on Natural Resources

Enforcement

Permit Income

 

Penalties/Fines

Restoration/Conservation

Area Conserved (no take)

 

Area Conserved (recreational take only)

 

Biomass Restocked (Vertebrates)

 

Biomass Restocked (Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Mitigation

Length of Engineered Coastal Barriers

 

Area Geoengineered

GVA

TBD

Expenditure

TBD

 

Table 7: Sediment Ecosystems

Ecosystem Type: Sediment

Category

Statistic

Environmental Assets

Condition

Biodiversity

Benthic Microbial Community

 

Fish Diversity

 

Infaunal Invertebrate Diversity

Ecosystem Extent

Total Area of Soft Bottom/Sediment (Satellite)

Ecosystem Fitness

Production: Respiration Ratio

 

Sulphate Reduction Rate

 

Sediment Oxygen Profile

 

Nitrification Rate

Biogeochemical Cycling

Nitrate Concentration

 

Sulphate Concentration

 

Sediment Redox Potential

 

Particulate/Dissolved Organic C:N

 

Dissolved Oxygen

 

pH (total scale)

Physiochemical Quality

Water Temperature

 

Salinity

 

Mean Sea Level

Carbon Stock

Benthic Production: Respiration Ratio

 

Sediment Permeability

 

Light Availability/Turbidity

 

Average Sea State

Resources

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross benthic fish catch

(Vertebrates)

Gross infaunal fish catch

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross Sea Cucumber Harvested

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Gross Shellfish Harvested

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Piscivorous Fish Grown

(Vertebrates)

Gross Planktivorous Fish Grown

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Shellfish grown

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

 

Stock of Abiotic Resources

Sand Harvested

Flows to the Economy (Ocean Services)

Regulation

Carbon Sequestration

Coastal geomorphology

 

Sediment deposition rate

 

Sediment Permeability

 

Light availability

Coastal Protection

Coastal geomorphology

 

Tidal Range

 

Water Table Height

 

Storm Frequency

Erosion Control

Fluvial sediment deposition

 

Sea level rise

 

Area of physical structure

Water Purification

Microphytobenthic composition

Nutrient Cycling

Nitrification Rate

 

Biological Oxygen Demand

 

Sulphate Reduction Rate

Waste Remediation

Sediment Organic Carbon Content

 

Sediment Organic Nitrogen Content

 

Plastic Pollutant Load

 

Terrestrial Runoff Rate

Pollutant Remediation

Fertilizer Concentrations

 

PCB Concentrations

 

Trace Metal Concentrations

Provisioning

Maintenance of Fisheries

Fish Surveys

 

Catch Rate

 

Catch Per Unit Effort

Cultivated Resources Extracted

Value of Cultivated Vertebrates

 

Value of Cultivated Invertebrates

Raw Materials Extracted

Value of Sand

Cultural

Tourism/Recreation

Accessible Area for Recreation

 

Water Quality

 

Tourism Generated Income

 

Recreation Generated Income

Education/Research

Net Expense on Research

 

Net Expense on Education

 

Habitat quality and area

Religious/Spiritual/Indigenous

Cultural Heritage Area

Ecosystem Governance

Regulation

License Fees/Taxes

 

Taxes on Cultivated Resources

 

Taxes on Natural Resources

Enforcement

Permit Income

 

Penalties/Fines

Restoration/Conservation

Area Conserved (no take)

 

Area Conserved (recreational take only)

 

Biomass Restocked (Vertebrates)

 

Biomass Restocked (Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Mitigation

Length of Engineered Coastal Barriers

 

Area Geoengineered

GVA

TBD

Expenditure

TBD

 

Table 8: Open Ocean Ecosystems

Ecosystem Type: Open Ocean

Category

Statistic

Environmental Assets

Condition

Biodiversity

Megafauna Abundance/Diversity

 

Fish Diversity

 

Plankton abundance

Ecosystem Extent

Total area defined as open ocean (satellite)

Ecosystem Fitness

Chlorophyll a concentration

 

Biological Pump Rate

 

Turbidity/Light availability

Biogeochemical Cycling

Thermocline

 

Pycnocline

 

Vertical Profile: Oxygen

 

Vertical Profile: Nitrate

 

Vertical Profile: pH

 

Vertical Profile: DIC

Physiochemical Quality

Sea Surface Temperature

 

Sea Surface Salinity

 

Mean Sea Level

Carbon Sequestration

Plankton Abundance

 

Chlorophyll a Concentration

 

Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Profile

 

Average Sea State

Resources

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross pelagic fish catch

(Vertebrates)

Gross piscivorous fish catch

Stock of Natural Aquatic Resources

Gross shrimp catch

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Gross squid catch

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Pelagic Fish Grown

(Vertebrates)

 

Stock of Cultivated Aquatic Resources

Gross Shellfish Grown

(Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Gross Shrimp Grown

Stock of Abiotic Resources

Oil/Petroleum Harvested

 

Energy Generated

Flows to the Economy (Ocean Services)

Regulation

Carbon Storage

Average Sea State

 

Chlorophyll a (Satellite)

 

SST (Satellite)

Coastal Protection

Mean Sea Level

 

Hydrodynamic Barrier Area

Erosion Control

Water Column Sedimentation Rates

Water Purification

Plankton Abundance

 

Chlorophyll a Concentration

Nutrient Cycling

Biological Pump Rate

 

Chlorophyll a Concentration (satellite)

 

Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Profile

Waste Remediation

Water Column PON

 

Water Column POC

 

Plastic Pollutant Load

 

Terrestrial Runoff Rate

Pollutant Remediation

Fertilizer Concentrations

 

Microplastic Concentrations

 

Large Plastic Concentrations

Provisioning

Maintenance of Fisheries

Fish Surveys

 

Catch Rate

 

Catch Per Unit Effort

Cultivated Resources Extracted

Value of Cultivated Vertebrates

 

Value of Cultivated Invertebrates

Raw Materials Extracted

Energy Generated

 

Oil/Petroleum Extracted

Cultural

Tourism/Recreation

Accessible Area for Recreation

 

Water Quality

 

Tourism Generated Income

 

Recreation Generated Income

Education/Research

Net Expense on Research

 

Net Expense on Education

Religious/Spiritual/Indigenous

Cultural Heritage Area

Ecosystem Governance

Regulation

License Fees/Taxes

 

Taxes on Cultivated Resources

 

Taxes on Natural Resources

Enforcement

Permit Income

 

Penalties/Fines

Restoration/Conservation

Area Conserved (no take)

 

Area Conserved (recreational take only)

 

Biomass Restocked (vertebrates)

 

Biomass Restocked (Invertebrates, Algae, Plants)

Mitigation

Length of Engineered Coastal Barriers

 

Area of Hydrodynamic Barriers

GVA

TBD

Expenditure

TBD