Appendix 6.2 IUCN global ecosystem typology (selected as relevant to Ocean Accounts)

Table 35. Selected biomes and ecosystem functional groups relevant to ocean accounting. Note: Transitional functional groups, FM1 = Freshwater/Marine; MT1 = Marine/Terrestrial, MFT = Marine/Terrestrial/Freshwater



Ecosystem Functional Group

Subterranean - Marine

SM1 Subterranean tidal biome

SM1.1 Anchialine caves

Freshwater - Marine

FM1 Transitional waters biome (Freshwater Marine)

FM1.1 Deepwater coastal inlets

FM1.2 Permanently open riverine estuaries and bays

FM1.3 Intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons


M1 Marine shelf biome

M1.1 Seagrass meadows

M1.2 Kelp forests

M1.3 Photic coral reefs

M1.4 Shellfish beds and reefs

M1.5 Photo-limited marine animal forests

M1.6 Subtidal rocky reefs

M1.7 Subtidal sand beds

M1.8 Subtidal mud plains

M1.9 Upwelling zones

M2 Pelagic ocean waters biome

M2.1 Epipelagic ocean waters

M2.2 Mesopelagic ocean waters

M2.3 Bathypelagic ocean waters

M2.4 Abyssopelagic ocean waters

M2.5 Sea ice

M3 Deep sea floors biome

M3.1 Continental and island slopes

M3.2 Submarine canyons

M3.3 Abyssal plains

M3.4 Seamounts, ridges and plateaus

M3.5 Deepwater biogenic beds

M3.6 Hadal trenches and troughs

M3.7 Chemosynthetic-based ecosystems (CBE)

M4 Anthropogenic marine biome

M4.1 Submerged artificial structures

M4.2 Marine aquafarms

Marine - Terrestrial

MT1 Shorelines biome

MT1.1 Rocky shorelines

MT1.2 Muddy shorelines

MT1.3 Sandy Shorelines

MT1.4 Boulder and cobble shores

MT2 Supralittoral coastal biome

MT2.1 Coastal shrublands and grasslands

MT3 Anthropogenic shorelines biome

MT3.1 Artificial shorelines

Marine - Freshwater - Terrestrial

MFT1 Brackish tidal biome

MFT1.1 Coastal river deltas

MFT1.2 Intertidal forests and shrublands

MFT1.3 Coastal saltmarshes


Global Ocean Accounts Partnership, 2019