List of Figures and Tables

Table of Contents



List of Figures

Figure 1. General structure of the Ocean Accounts Framework

Figure 2. Nutrients fall to light-poor depths, runoff from land and are brought to the surface by currents

Figure 3. Detailed table structure of Ocean Accounts Framework

Figure 4. Basic Spatial Units for Ocean Accounts

Figure 5. Structure of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems global ecosystem typology

Figure 6. Relationship between ocean and ocean economy

Figure 7. Basic jurisdictional framework for ocean governance

Figure 8. Simplified Ocean Accounts Framework

Figure 9 Steps for conducting ocean accounts pilot studies

Figure 10. Example of overalying drainage basins with marine administrative areas (Malaysia)

Figure 11. Vietmam pilot for Quang Ning province: subset of ocean assets (coral, seagrass, mangrove, protected areas, ports)

Figure 12. Initial examples of delineating ocean bathymetry and selected ecosystem types (Canada)

Figure 13. Simple example of overlaying ocean assets with designated use (ESCAP Exercise)

Figure 14. Simple example of allocating terrestrial activities to drainage basin (ESCAP Exercises)

Figure 15. Relationship among concepts of ocean economy

Figure 16. Basic structure of national income and product accounts

Figure 17. Components of the ocean economy

Figure 18. Components of SEEA-EEA amenable to modelling/estimation

Figure 19. Relationship between Ocean Accounts and other information products

Figure 20. System analysis for SDG14

Figure 21. Links between targets of the Sendai Framework and the SDGs

Figure 22. The availability of data to monitor and report on the indicators measuring the global targets of the Sendai Framework and disaster-related targets of the SDGs

Figure 23. Structure of the FEGS/NESCS classification scheme

Figure 24. IPBES Classification of Nature’s Contributions to People

Figure 25. Structure and components of CMECS classification scheme

Figure 26. Hierarchical components of CBiCs classification scheme and Biotic Component hierarchy


List of Tables

Table 1. Physical Asset Extent Account

Table 2. Physical Asset Condition Account by MBSU for each depth layer at end of accounting period

Table 3. Summary Asset Condition Account by ecosystem type and individual environmental asset type at end of accounting period

Table 4. Monetary Asset Account (currency units)

Table 4a. SEEA Ecosystem Services

Table 5x. List of common, widely applicable ecosystem services is under development as part of the SEEA Ecosystems revision process

Table 5. Flows table: General supply and use table (physical or monetary) (during accounting period)

Table 6. Flows to the economy: Supply and use of ocean services (physical or monetary) (during accounting period)

Table 7. Examples of ocean services by ecosystem type

Table 8. A, B and C methods for ecosystem services valuation

Table 9. Tiered approach to valuation of ecosystem services approaches

Table 10. Basic structure for Water Emissions Account by drainage basin and marine area

Table 11. Physical supply and use of solid waste residuals

Table 11. Physical supply and use of solid waste residuals (continued)

Table 12. Supply of flows to the ocean (physical) (during accounting period)

Table 13. Ocean Economy Satellite Account (year)

Table 14. Ocean-related ISIC codes

Table 15. Ocean economy table: supply and use (monetary) (during accounting period)

Table 16. Governance table: spatially explicit situation (at end of accounting period)

Table 17. Governance table: environmental economic activity per sector (at end of accounting period)

Table 18. Governance table: illustrative summaries of rules and decision-making institutions (at end of accounting period)

Table 18A. Recording changes in ecosystem assets in monetary ecosystem asset table (adapted from Table 2 in DP5.4)

Table 19. Combined presentation (physical and monetary) (during accounting period)

Table 20. National wealth table: Ocean Economy balance sheet (monetary)

Table 21. National wealth table: Ocean Asset environment balance sheet (physical or monetary units) (at end of accounting period)

Table 22. Key actions for account development planning

Table 23. Priority topics and policy concerns addressed in Ocean Accounts pilots

Table 24. Example of physical ecosystem services supply table (Limburgh province, 2010)

Table 25. Example of monetary ecosystem services supply table (Limburgh province, 2010)

Table 26 Selected estimates of value of ocean-based industries, by country, region and world

Table 27. Indicative data sources for Canada’s Marine Economy Accounts

Table 28. Summary indicators, context and quality concerns linked to selected priority issues

Table 29. Tier classification criteria and definitions for SDG indicators

Table 30. Essential Ocean Variables

Table 31. Essential Biodiversity Variables

Table 32. Illustrative contributions of modelling to Ocean Accounts

Table 30x. Core Ocean Statistics (in progress)

Table 33. Partial list of ocean data portals

Table 34 Summary of ESCAP Global Ocean Data Inventory

Table 35. Selected biomes and ecosystem functional groups relevant to ocean accounting

Table 36 Marine-related ecosystem services flagged in the CICES

Table 37. CICES marine-related abiotic services (not flagged by the CICES, but selected by the authors)

Table 38. Ocean-related ISIC codes

Table 39. Illustrative characteristic industries of the ocean economy (% of times mentioned; n=25)

Table 40. Ocean-related ISIC codes (expanded with Colgan, 2018)

Table 41. Components of the “Blue Economy”

Table 42. Coral Reef ecosystem core statistics

Table 43 Mangrove ecosystem core statistics

Table 44. Kelp Forest ecosystem core statistics

Table 45. Seagrass ecosystem core statistics

Table 46. Salt Marsh and Estuary ecosystem core statistics

Table 47. Sediment ecosystem core statistics

Table 48. Open Ocean ecosystem core statistics


Abbreviations and acronyms

4IR

Fourth Industrial Revolution

ABNJ 

Areas Beyond National Jurisdictions 

AIS

Automated Identification System

AIT 

Asian Institute of Technology 

APRU 

Association of Pacific Rim Universities 

ARD

Analysis Ready Datasets

ASEAN 

Association of Southeast Asian Nations 

ASFA

Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries

BSU  

Basic Spatial Unit (see Glossary) 

CBD

The Convention on Biological Diversity

CBiCS

Combined Biotope Classification Scheme

CBSU

Coastal Basic Spatial Unit

Cefas

Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science

CEOS

Committee on Earth Observation Satellites

CICES 

The Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (see Glossary) 

CMECS 

Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (see Glossary) 

CMU 

Coastal Marine Units (see Glossary) 

COP 

Conference of the Parties

CWP

Coordinating Working Party on Fishery Statistics

DIAS

Data Information and Access Services

DON

Dissolved organic nitrogen

DPSIR

Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact and Response

DRSF 

Disaster-Related Statistics Framework 

EA 

Ecosystem Asset 

EAA

Ecosystem Accounting Area

EBVs

Essential Biodiversity Variables

ECVs

Essential Climate Variables

eEOVs

Ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables

EEZ 

Exclusive Economic Zone 

EMUs 

Ecosystem Marine Units (see Glossary) 

ENGOs

Environmental Non-governmental Organizations

EOVs

Essential Ocean Variables

ESCAP 

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 

ETs

Ecosystem Types

EVCs

Ecological Vegetation Classes

EWC-Stat

European Waste Classification for Statistics

FAO 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 

FDES 

Framework for the Development of Environment Statistics 

FIGIS

Fisheries Global Information System

FIRMS

Fisheries and Resources Monitoring System

FOO

Framework on Ocean Observing

GDP 

Gross Domestic Product 

GEBCO

General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans

GEE

Google Earth Engine

GEO BON

Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network

GEO 

Group on Earth Observation 

GEP 

Gross Ecosystem Product (see Glossary) 

GET

Global Ecosystem Typology

GHGs 

Greenhouse Gases 

GIS

Geographic Information System

GO

Gross Output

GOAP 

Global Ocean Accounts Partnership 

GOOS

Global Ocean Observing System

GVA

Gross Value Added

HIES

Household Income and Expenditure Surveys

IAEG-SDGs

Inter-agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators

ICEP

Index of Coastal Eutrophication

ICZM

Integrated Coastal Zone Management

IDEEA

Institute for Development of Environmental-Economic Accounting

IGOs

Intergovernmental organisations

IIED 

International Institute for Environment and Development 

IMO

International Maritime Organisation

IOC

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

IPCC 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 

IPOA-IUU

The 2001 International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter, and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing

ISIC

The International Standard Industrial Classification

IUCN

International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUU

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated

JNCC

The UK Joint Nature Conservation Committee

JNCC-EUNIS

The Joint Nature Conservation Committee – European Nature Information System

LME 

Large Marine Ecosystems (see Glossary) 

MBON

Marine Biodiversity Observation Network

MBSU

Marine Basic Spatial Unit

MEOW 

Marine Ecosystems of the World (see Glossary) 

MPA 

Marine Protected Area 

MSDI  

Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure (see Glossary) 

MSP

Marine Spatial Planning

NOAA 

US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

NPV

Net Present Value

NSDI 

National Spatial Data Infrastructure (see Glossary) 

NSO 

National Statistical Office 

NSS 

National Statistical System 

OECD 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 

PEAF

The Poverty Environment Accounting Framework

PEMSEA 

Partnership in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia 

PEN

Poverty-environment-nexus

PON

Particulate Organic Nitrogen

PSUT 

Physical Supply and Use Tables (see Glossary) 

RFMOs

Regional Fishing Management Organizations

SDGs 

Sustainable Development Goals (2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development) 

SEEA 

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 

SEEA–AFF 

SEEA Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 

SEEA–CF 

SEEA Central Framework 

SEEA–EEA 

SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting 

SNA 

System of National Accounts 

SOLSTICE–WIO 

Sustainable Oceans, Livelihoods, and food Security Through Increased Capacity in Ecosystem research in the Western Indian Ocean 

SST

Sea Surface Temperature

TBSUs

Terrestrial Basic Spatial Units

TEEB

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity

TSA

Tourism Satellite Accounts

UNCEEA 

UN Committee of Experts on Environmental-Economic Accounting 

UNCLOS/ LOSC

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

UNECE-CES 

UN Economic Commission for Europe, Conference of European Statisticians 

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNISDR 

UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction 

UNITAR

United Nations Institute for Training and Research

UNSC 

UN Statistical Commission 

UNSD

UN Statistics Division

UNSW

University of New South Wales

VMS

Vessel monitoring system

WTP

Willingness to Pay